Sun in Mythology

Western Mythologies


Mesopotania - Babylonia & Assyria

Sun and Moon plus venus were considered gods, the Sun was considered to be the solar divinity of Shamash. Shamash in Sumeria and Babylonia carried a saw (Shashh-aru), which produced the specks in the sun beams, by rasping the firmament. He sat in judgement over humanity.


The sun god is attributed to Ra who is born from the female sky goddess Nut. Nut is projected on the milky Way or the galatic disc which can be geocentrically viewed. Annually Nut swallows the sun as her mouth opens on the setting horizon.This is situated between Gemini as its sets on the horizon during the Spring Equinox c. 4500 - 3500 BCE.

The sun is reborn from the sky goddess at the winter solstice where the milky way divides into two arms or in this case from between Nut legs, situated at the constellation of cygnus. As the milky way fades in the morning of the solstice, leaving the helical rising of the Cygnus visible a little longer, the sun if then re born via the birth channel in the milky way. In the 4th millennium it was perceived as the goddess nut whom arched herself around the semi circular night vault, gave birth to the sun at its observed southeastern stand still point on the horizon. This cult was held at Heliopolis in lower Egypt on the Delta area until the unification with upper Egypt c. 3000 BCE.

Upper Egypt was more concerned with the helical rising of Sirius which marked the flooding of the Nile. However Sirius became equated with Isis becoming the daughter of Ra.

In the Pyramid Texts (c. 2400 BC), the dead pharaoh seeks to fly up to heaven and join the sun-god Re on his unceasing journey across the sky, incorporated, thus, in a mode of existence beyond change and decay. A passage in the later Book of the Dead (1200 BC) represents the deceased, who has been ritually identified with Osiris, declaring that he comprehends the whole range of time in himself, thus asserting his superiority over it.



To the Greeks it became Basileus Helios, the Royal Sun


This becam Sol Inventus to the Romans an import from neighbouring Syrians after 220CE



European Indigenous Mythologies


The female goddess Saule was associated with the sun, she rode in a charriot with copper wheels drawn by horses. Her ride across the sky was temparary halted at dust. This is the time when the horses are washed before dissappearing through the silver gates into the castle situated at the western edges of the sea.

Asian-Middle East Indigenous Mythologies


Hindu Sun god Surya associated to the Bangal coast. Large temple constructed in the diety hnour which dates to the 13th century. Surya is often represented in a chariot which is drawn by seven horses or by a horse with seven heads. Surya is the Hindu Sun god who is pulled across the sky in a Chariot. Very similar to the Baltic sun diety Saule.

Variations on the Planet Sun


Mithras was a divinity associated with light, connected to the Sun which produced this phenomenean. Mithras is a male child in mythology who is found under a tree next to a stream who holds a touch and a knife. Mithras is the child of the earth who later defeats the cosmic bull (Taurus). A cult which spread throughout Europe via the influence of Rome, that is after Alexandria the Great had defeated the Persian and bought them into the Hellinistic sphere of influence.

Astrocelt 1998

Last updated 09/03/2004