Celts in Northern Gaul

Synopsis:

A study of Celts in Northern Gaul first published in Aontacht, Volume 1 Issue 04 Spring/Autumn Equinox 2009

Northern Gaul spans along the northern Atlantic coast from the mouth of the River Seine and terminates at the mouth of the Rhine. Both rivers act as a boundary marker, likewise the modern city of Paris marks the southern extent. The Rhine forms a north and eastern boundary marker of the area under consideration which also takes in part of southern Germany today. Such markers were first implemented in its written form by Caesar, and have been duplicated ever since.  Overall it’s this geographic area which is being termed as Northern Gaul and is under consideration.  Today the area encompasses Belgium, Northern France, Luxembourg, central and Southern Netherlands and Southern Germany.

The question one might ask is where does one start on this journey or quest? The most obvious place is the classical sources, such as the De Bello Gallico, by Caesar, the later Germania by Tacitus, and the geography of Strabo together with previous sources these authors mention. Yet there are no written records by the Celtic people them selves; all the commentaries are from another way of life, culture and worldview. At the end of the day, this is all what is available, even the surviving earlier fragments might assist.

Classical sources contribute a different style of evidence through their own cultural influences and writer’s agendas become embedded. For instance early Greek commentaries on the tribes and people outside their known world were generally classified as barbarians or Celts, and Rome too followed a similar line of expression.  It’s not until Caesar works became reprinted during the renaissance period in the 15th-16th century, together with others, the names of Druids are brought back into intellectual circulation, together with the names the people called themselves in Gaul. Since then, additional written material has been made available and passed from one generation to another in its written form.

There are the various disciplines within archaeology; linguistic on the other hand is also an area which could be considered. Yet these can only assist up to a point; specifically when Latinised names appear on surviving statues, and associated sculptures one can delve further. Very similar to the ogham standing stones which appeared in Wales.

Legends and myths surviving from this period are non existence. However it is possible to compare and contrast surviving art and stone reliefs, with other Celtic people’s surviving mythology leading to a comparative hypothesis. Likewise anthological interpretations can also contribute to the knowledge base when reconstructing social tribal structures in Gaul.  

It’s generally accepted when speaking of the Celts within an archaeology context; the main cultural impetus derives from the Hallstatt period with its salt trade from Austria, and the material evidence from the La Tène culture in Switzerland.  The evidence from the latter has been split into three periods of early, middle and late La Tène. This spans a timeline from about 6th to 1st century BC/BCE before one enters into the early Gallo-Roman period. The human process of exchange in prestige items combined with shared ideas has been theorised’ and proposed as the driving force for it’s outwardly expansion across a wider Europe. Migrations of people have also been recorded by classical commentators as being another cause. Overall it’s likely to have been a combination of both influences. However most of Europe shared a specific type of decoration exhibited in the recovered artefacts which are generalised and group together as being “Celtic Art.”  Regardless of the fact some of the art motifs derive from earlier Bronze Age periods.

Archaeology in itself can give an insight through excavations and recovered artifacts’ while offering a window to view the past.  This could include assistance relative to structures and associated material residue, agricultural practices; combined with burial artifacts and iconology. Beliefs held via burial practices and water deposits, culminating in the material representation of gods and goddesses, to even a speculative held worldview during the period under review, can be hypostasised from the available evidence. Overall the various branches are attempting to intellectually reconstruct working mental images and models of what it could have been, through a gradual progress of investigation. Even though such models are not the complete picture or do they reflect what really actually occurred, but is the best hypothesis available at the time.

Reaching the area of Northern Gaul the main influence is from the Late La Tène period, this has in all tense and purposes been blended with previous cultural forces from the immediate area. An example would be the Beaker or the urnfield culture where archaeology evidence suggests the introduction of cremation and water votive deposits occurred, combined with a changing worldview to interpret the lived in world.  There is an additional influence derived from the Amber trade route from the north and those from the Mediterranean traders via the river valleys to the south, all of which affected and to some extent influenced the area, its culture politically and social out ward expression.

 

 

Classical social groups in Northern Gaul have been recorded. These include a number of tribal areas by commentators which enable maps to be constructed for visual presentations.  The individual tribes are named by Julius Caesar as they are encountered during the Roman colonisation. As indicated opposite the Belgae would appear to be most prolific and perhaps influential of these. There too are the Parisii in modern day Paris, Veliocasas and the Celeti on the lower Seine, while the Ambiani located the main Somme area with the Atrbres. The Remi in the Champagne area, on the coast there is the Viromandi, north in Belgium also on the coat is the Meldi whose area extended into southern Netherlands, to the south are the Nervii.  In the Lahu valley were the Germanic Ubii with the Tencteri and Usipetic on the boarders.

When one often thinks of the Celtic settlements, from the Iron Age period in England and Ireland settlements were similar as fortified and unfortified with an agrarian purpose. Images of circular thatched buildings might come to mind, together with hill forts or Oppia as they are known in Europe, yet this is not the case in Northern Gaul, archaeology evidence indicates the majority and main type of house structures were rectangular. These buildings performing a multi purpose, for the extended family living in them, and around the hearth, an addition area within this dwelling also had an area which housed livestock. These are the standard type of building which is found in the various categories highlighted over the majority of Gaul used by the tribal groups, and in some cases named in the classical records.

Yet this form of rectangular building or long house exists in unfortified settlements mainly in the north and East of the area along the Rhine. All appear to have an agricultural function, and it appears they received little repair, often abandoned and rebuilt again as the fertility of the land becomes exhausted.  Which the present information available suggests in the archaeology evidence and this tends to agree with Caesar descriptions.  

Fortified settlements are more permanent consisting of number of the rectangular long house, all enclosed by either a ditch on its own or with additional timber fencing, or even both.  Another function of the enclosure could well relate to keeping livestock confined when needed.  Inside this defined community work space, additional structural’s become evident depending on the type of soil; its water retention dictating whether cereal pits for storing the cereal were dug. Where excessive moisture was present, additional four to six post structures were erected to store the harvest. A unique feature of storage pits have been noted where they have been lined with timber in Northern France although this is presently a rare occurrence from the archaeology record. Another feature are wells for the community us, these have not been uncovered where a water supply has been nearby this type of settlement.
Nonetheless fortified sites were not just used as places for communities to carry out there everyday activities and agricultural pursuits.  It’s interesting to note a predominate number of this form of settlement spread along the Aisne river valley in north western France, including the larger Oppia/hillforts. Additionally Celtic field systems have been recorded in association to a small number of unfortified and fortified settlements, and in some cases with the Oppia too. Although the present research available is very limited, it might be tempting to compare and contrast these Celtic fields’ with those located around Dartmoor in Southern England to gain a comparison.

Irrespectively the Hill forts or Oppia functioned as a large defended settlement range from various sizes together with the functions which they were used by the Celtic people concerned. Although the largest range in size from 40 t0 200 acres or 20 to 100 hectares used in time of crises to protect the people, tribe or sub tribe.  Those below still classified as an Oppia, suggest other uses as gathering or meeting places, specifically when no internal structures have been uncovered or excavated from within its confines. Yet others indicate they operated as cereal and food depositaries, specifically where extensive number of cereal pits have been uncovered an example of this is Eschweiler in Lurenzburg.  On the other hand a limited amount 3-4 rectangular dwellings with a large number of storage pits, combined with torc, coins and iron currency bars are suggested to be multipurpose for both cereal storage and artisans manufacturing prestige items albeit for trade or otherwise. An example is in the Lower Rine area at Niederzier. There too are the larger fortified Oppia settlements would encompassed all of the previous aspects, together with a sacred and profane space allowing the joint community or individual to express their beliefs in the sacred. Overall regardless of the tribal group, these large fortified areas protected the tribal group in times of internal conflicts with neighbouring tribal groups or from Roman infringement contesting territory control. However this is not always the case as some tribal groups in lowland marsh areas are likely to utilise the natural defences whereby Oppia or hill forts do not appear.

Considering the discipline of archaeology is a young and maturing, with a large majority of Oppia sites and features remain unexcavated. It might be a reasonable straight forward to generalise and associate specific Oppia to the tribes recorded via the classical sources. Although some have been identified others remain elusive and not forthcoming. An example being Lutetia indicated to be on an island in the River Seine in the Paris area associated to the Parisii tribal group.   There is one type of structure which has not been covered, but briefly mentioned relating to sacred and profane space, which will be returned to in due course.

The settlements were all self sufficient practicing rural mixed agriculture and animal husbandry during the 1st century BC prior to Gallic wars. A small insight can be gained from charred remains in storage pits, refuse from the midden dumps; additionally the pollen record and excavated artifacts of farming implements recovered opens a generalised understanding of how the Celts where living during the period. Overall this area of research is under development by scholars in specific areas within northern Gaul.  

From the predominate number of animal bones relating to cattle, oxen, sheep, pigs and goat all tends to indicate these are the primary animals kept for both meat and its by products of milk and wool. In the cases of the Oxen, the recovery of pieces of wooden yokes, ard (plough) and also timber wheels suggest the animal was used mainly in assisting the farmer to work the land.  The domesticated animals meat appear to have been supplemented by wild game in the diet relating to red deer, roe deer wild pig or boar and hare which also appear in the archaeology record. Classical writers also comment on the large flocks sheep by the Celts at a later date after the Gallic wars.  Horses were also kept primarily for use of individual society members used in raiding; inter warfare amongst themselves and as paid mercenaries. The classical tribute the Celtic cavalry assisting the Romans in there conflicts additionally migrations and the effect they had on the Greek consciousness can also be gleaned.  

The cultivated crops relate to einkorn. emma, spelt, bread wheat and barley, millet is also suggests it was a main crop in the area. Additional plants which are considered “wild” today appears to have been grow in quantities Bitter vetch, Gold of Pleasure and Fax appear in the record. Charred grains of these cereal plants have been recovered from specific storage pits form settlements and Oppia, overall suggesting care was taken to separate the produce for storage. The cereals where roasted prior being placed in the pits but appears not to have been chuffed. During the Late Le Tene period the introduction of individual hand querns had reached this area. This is an essential piece of equipment assist in grinding cereals and bread wheat into flour, which it has lead to the thought where meals where cereals are concerned were made into gruel.   No doubt local berries were also collected and used, however influence from Rome within agriculture produce occurred with the introduction and cultivation of olives and vines slowly made there way into the area from the south.

Society settlements and rural agriculture practices suggest a structured society with an agricultural surplus; utilised in food exchange is a basic economy function within the Iron Age tied with a social order. Hypothesis models of the social structure whereby the farmer pays a food tribute to either an artisan for his craft, or to a group/family/ tribal leader. The leaders in turn paid a similar tribute to a stronger leader a rix or ruler as a form of client ship.  A hierarchical structure is formed through food exchange and also coincides with gift exchange when moving up the scale. Individual tribal groups indicate a structure of famers, artisans, warrior nobility, and a tribal leader, who in turn is connected with a stronger leader/chief or tribal sovereign ruler or King of a tribal group.  

A classical resource opens a particular point of view, recorded by Posidonuis a Greek traveller relating to the way society functioned. The may facets commented on include their presentation and dress, hospitality, feasting, warfare, head hunting, a small note on ritual together with an insight of separate classes within Gaul society. The feast in which Posidonuis records displays a ranking system with the aristocratic warrior society with the seating arrangement he describes. Likewise the boasting and material display in of golden torc’s and arm bracelets and associated jewellery accessories.  One learns a little about the artisans in the society but only through the remarks concerning the mining of gold within the locality.  Assuming the metal was used to create the gold jewellery used as ornamentation signifying social rank, together with this metal playing an important part in votive offerings, probable manufactured by artisans.

Bards are mentioned accompanying the tribal leaders both on and off the battlefields. Together with their role of lyrical eulogies sung in song of their patron deeds and exploits.  Indeed one gets an image from the sources relating to the bards competing with each other at the feasting occasions of out doing each other in pose as they recite the merits of their patrons. Indeed single challenges of boasting aristocratic or warrior nobility, which often lead to single combat and death of either one concerned.

Seers or vates are mentioned whose role was to study nature and supervise in sacrifices, gives an early hint of their role but it’s not elaborated on further. Yet more information is gleaned about the Druids; Posidonuis records their role as a learned class responsible for studying nature; morality; making judgements which affected the whole tribal society publically and dealing with individual private matters within the tribal group.  Indeed such would also relate to condemning people of which they no doubt also supervised in the execution on such judgements. An interesting revelation is also given to Posidonuis in regards to the belief of the Celtic soul immortality, which he tends to compare with the earlier Greek Pythagoras teaching on reincarnation. If this is the case then it could well be a record an actual Druidic teachings!   Likewise his record of the universe ending in fire and water could well be a future prediction relating to the world, or even the event identified by astronomers within space recording the end of the life for stars and galaxies. Whatever is the case Posidonuis records each of their roles within society, although one assumes this applies to each tribal group in the North and Southern Gaul. However what is lacking is there relationship to each other, are they separate or divisions of attainment of knowledge leading to become a Druid?

Caesar commentaries relating to the Gallic Wars tends to separate these and also bunches them together, to give an impression of a connection between the three as social ranks.  Additional information is relating can also be gleamed about the Druid origins.   Overall they where given the responsibility relating to ‘interpret all matters of religion’.   Interesting the recording of another Druid teaching relating to the Gaul belief, where it’s indicated they descended from a god named Dis, this is what the druids handed down or taught to them.   To what extent of influence this belief had or held is unknown together with whether any iconographic artefacts relates, although suggestion has been put forward from past and present scholars relating to a Hammer God.  Specifically where a Gallic king Viridomaras believed in divine descent from Dis, coupled with the river Rhine goddess being a joint associated ancestor. Indeed this could well conjure up images of an abstract parallel or vertical tiered otherworld. This in itself could open up discussions on the present belief held today, relating to the poly nature of Celtic deities’.

 

The main binding blocks of any society, tribal or social group be it ancient or modern is the shared common beliefs and experiences held. The Celtic people of this region were no exception from this expressing a particular view point through their understanding of the perceived or known abstract otherworld. Recent anthropological/archaeology researches into Celtic tribal structures suggest there were different levels of religious organisation present. It’s starting point being the main tribal gods, to those of the warrior aristocracy/nobility cults to ancestral worship.  There is a limited glimpse from classical sources relating to these via comparison relationships to Roman gods and goddess of the period. If one utilise similar methods of Posidinouis and Caesar through comparisons within their own culture understanding. A large body of knowledge has grown up since the revival of Celticism in the 17th century once the language became identified as being Celtic.   The iconography derives from the archaeology recorded, associated inscriptions where they exist after Romanisation; even comparable related myths from deities with similar attributes from other Celtic cultures outside of Gaul could expand on there profane and spiritual function.

Having this in mind, what evidence is available for the “immortal deities” in Northern Gaul in the archaeology record?  Some of those well attested in the Celtic literature is Cernunnos, an antler deity with an inscription also on the Nautes Parisiace monument in Parris.   Although one might be tempted to relate this to the tribal group of the Perissi, further north within the area of the Remi addition imagery of this deity is available from Reims. The difference between these two relates to the inclusion of additional Roman deities of Apollo and Mercury is on either side.  Rather than the classical written comparisons here there is a visual one to. Understand the Celtic deity in this context would suggest a synthesis of his companions’ which might reveal addition attributes functions and qualities.   

In comparison in the east of northern Gaul the Treveri the principle deity is Lenus associated to the Roman Mars. In this instance a healer and associated with such a sacred site.  The female partner of Lenus was often Ancanna, Furthermore the area associated with this tribal group is prolific in representations of the large source for the Matronae Matres, the triple mother Goddess where they take on a large variety of names. However they too are held in high regard elsewhere as in Southern Gaul however the highest concentration belongs in the area associate with the Treveri and its sub divisional; tribal groups.

Another aspect of belief can be gleaned from the sacred sites or sanctuaries; these are mainly associated with springs and rivers. Votive deposits such as wooden images recovered from the mouth of the Seine from the sanctuary of Sequana the river goddess which date from the 1st century AD. Likewise coinage which has been marked in various ways, one presumes again, by the depositor find there way into these sacred rivers.  Any cognitive “deal” with the relative associate deity of the site, leaves no trace. In later cases written pacts between the depositor and deity become evident through inscriptions where they have survived. However the inscriptions are helpful which might suggest a personal “contract” with the god or goddess concerned to bring favour through abundance, healing or success in battle.

Considering the amount of votive offerings specifically of Iron Age words recovered from the rivers, within the area, one wonders whether this may relate to the warrior aristocracy/nobility weapon return to the river goddess which could has become interwoven into Arthurian Myth,   

Sacred places which define sacred and profane space are not just limited to Sancturies related to springs and rivers. There is a few cases in Northern Gaul were they exist within settlements specifically relating to a few fortified Oppia’s.  The examples are at Klein – Winterernheim in the East and in south Germany; extensive assortment of artifacts where recovered together with the votive inscriptions to Mars/Loucetius and Nemetona.    In comparison to the west in France at Gournay – sur –Aronde on the Aronde River, where extensive excavations has been undertaken. Both suggest an indigenous centre becoming later reused or built upon in the Gallic Roman period as new temples of worship appeared.  Continual use from the early La Tene period commenced off with the use of ritual pits enclosed in a rectangular ditched area defining it space as being different from that outside its boundaries. By the time we reach the period one is dealing with the space has been further defined adding mystery, the are still present, large diameter poles have been erected, with a possible wattle fence enclosing the area. The outer ditch contained the votive offerings and even ritual deposits. The original ritual pit is still is use circa 350 years later its central and focussed position remaining completely open to the natural elements! This particular structure becomes burnt down, as an enclosed Gallo Roman temple is built over the ritual pit.

Another area which can assist in understanding beliefs is through burial. Earlier it was mentioned cremation was the preferred method of funerals, and indeed the classical resources have recorded this preference too. From the Champagne region which could relate to the Remi tribal group, several burial sites have come to light which has enabled archaeologist been able to undertake various a studies. Interestingly apart from the cremations’ present, there too are inhumations as well. Cremations burials are often dated to some degree by the pottery container which the remains become interred within, but there are also other considerations.

Analyses of the cremated remains have added some light, which could be related to the funeral rite complementing the classical sources. A very high proportion of cremated pigs associated with the remains were noted. Additionally the amount collected from the pyre and placed in it container varies from the late La Tene to the Gallic-Romano period, which might indicate more care had been taken in the earlier period than the later one. In all cases not everything is successfully cremated and some bone is likely to remain. There is an instance in one cremation, where part of the skull had been marked for easier recognition of the individual later.  

Considering the amount of votive offerings specifically of Iron Age swords scabbards and even cauldrons recovered from the rivers, within the area, one wonders whether this may relate to the warrior aristocracy/nobility weapon return to the river goddess which could has become interwoven into Arthurian Myth,   One wonders whether this action of removing such items out of circulation as a votive offering might have some relevance to the cremation rite?  

Irrespectively they do tend to exhibit a specific ideological ideal, one where the human body is a vessel containing an abstract spirit or soul, which has departed. To dispose of the body in this way could concur with the classical commentators recording of Druid teachings about the immortality of the soul.
Yet what of the inhumation also excavated accompanied with everyday wares of the same period here may need a different interpretation.  Not everyone defined in the Celtic World were undertaking cremations, inhumations continued which included wagon and chariot’s accompanying the interred.  

The various tribal groups within the area subsisted within a self sufficient agrarian society supported by material goods for exchange. These were loosely structured as farmers, artisans, and a warrior class of nobles or aristocrats under the leadership of a tribal head. The principle tribal leader in turn became part of a confederation of family groups under the leadership of a rix. All levels of the society were supported by Bards, Druids and seers. Each as we have seen had a function within society from the classical records. One may like to think both the Druids and seers had the ability to transcend groups of people or individual into ecstatic states, bringing about feelings of euphoria, as they become closer to their ancestors in any rites they performed. Alternatively such mental states may have been achieved on an individual, when a personal contract was undertaken via a votive gift to the deity as an exchange payment. Indeed Druids in the role of Priests, defined as an individuals who influenced and have control over politics, economics and hierarchy beliefs held within a tribal belief system or its oral religion of understanding the world. Maybe the bards held the oral memory of all these things?

Whatever the case may have been the tribal groups were dependant on an exchange system primarily centred on food supported by material and gift exchange from the artisans and from outside their territory area. Each shared a cultural social code, a worldview of understanding the environment in which they lived and interacted with. Although this varied from tribe to tribe suggesting it had a common source through similarities of existences’ which one might call simply “Celtic” today.

Bibliography

Bradley, R., 1990, The Passage of Arms: An archaeology analysis of prehistoric hoards and Votive deposits, Cambridge

Chadwick, N.K., 1997, The Druids, Cardiff, University Press 2nd edition

Dinan, W., 1911, Monumenta Historica Celtica, Notices of the Celts in the writings of the Greek and Latin Authors from the tenth century B.C., to the fifth Century AD.  Vol.1, David Nutt, London

Edwards H. J., (Trans) 1922, Caesar, The Gallic War, London

Freeman, P., 1996, ‘The Earliest Greek Sources on the Celts’, Etudies-Celtiques Vol. XXXII pp. 11-45

Goudineau, C, 1999, ‘The Romanisation of Gaul’ in Vencelas Kruta et al (Ed), The Celts, Rizzoli, NY pp.543-45

Green, M, J., 1992, Dictionary of Celtic Myth and Legend, Thames and Hudson

Hayden, B., 2003, A prehistory of Religion: Shamans, Sorcerers and Saints, Smithsonian Books
*/-
Haywood, J., 2004, The Celts: Bronze Age to New Age, Pearson Longman Edinburgh

Kidd, I. G., (Trans) 1999,   Posidonius, The Fragments: Volume III, The Translation of the Fragments, Cambridge.

Kristaisnsen, K, 1998, Europe before History, Cambridge University Press

McDevitte, W. A., 1859, Caesar’s Commentaries; Gallic and Civil Wars, Harper & Brothers N.Y.

Roymans, N., 1990, Tribal societies of Northern Gaul: An anthropological perspective, University of Amesterdam

Stead, I. M., J-L., Flouest and Valery Rigby, 2006, Iron Age and Roman Burials in Champagne, Oxbow Books

Kruta, V., 1999, ‘Celtic Religion, in Vencelas Kruta et al (Ed), The Celts, Rizzoli, NY pp.533-541

Tierney, J.J., 1960, The Celtic Ethnography of Posidonius, in the Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, Vol. 60, section C No 5

Wightman, E.M., 1985, Gallia Belgica, London

Internet

Gallic Wars: http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?lookup=Caes.+Gal.+toc

Caesar’s Commentaries http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Commentarii_de_Bello_Gallico

Images

Map of  Gaul - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gaul

Cernunnos and the Matres – Miranda Green - All rights reserved


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Morri's picture

Thank you!

Thank you for this Astrocelt, I found it extremely interesting and it has clarified many things that I found confusing about the Continental Celtic artifacts and timelines. I appreciate that you went all the way back to Poisidenous (sp? forgive me I am tired) to do some of your research. His work is usually referred to through secondary sources and I have been trying to get a copy for my personal library for a few years now so that I can check information quickly and easily.  It's a wee bit pricey so it has sat on my Amazon wishlist like a wallflower at a Debutante Ball. :)