Einion Offeiriad


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Einion Offeiriad 


The removal of the Native leaders caused a void within the poetic tradition where the Pencerddiaid and Beirdd teulu were unable to gain their traditional form of patronage. They had previously worked under the Law codes and its bardic mysteries with its strict mitres. The compound words they had masterly used appeared to be no longer understood by the ulwchwyr. Einion grammar is described as having arrived at a time when the poetic tradition was both in a period of confrontation and crises. Nevertheless, a turning point that gave the tradition continuity. Although it had been under the direct influence of the church, where its clerics recorded it in manuscript form. Therefore, it has been indicated that both direct control which in all probability-included censorship.

Einion Offeiriad or Eninoin the Priest hailed from Cardiganshire or it predecessor Ceredigion. Described by R. Griffiths as being a ' Mabwynion man' and further adds the valley of Tefi was a literature cultural centre in the mid 1300's. The grammar was a Welsh adaptation very much dependent on the Donatus grammar. Nonetheless, Eininon Grammar appeared between 1322-27, it divided traditional poetry into two themes; spiritual praise and secondly temporal poetry. Where the spiritual or gwengerdd (holy poetry) is held in higher esteems; it praised Mary inclusive of the human designated saints. While in comparison, the temporal poetry praised human beings.


Griffiths, R., Conquerors and Conquered in Medieval Wales, Stroud: Sutton, 1994

Lewis, C.W., 'Enion Offeriad and the Bardic Grammar,' in A.O.H Jarman and Gwilym Hughes, A guide to Welsh Literature 1282-1550, Uinversity of Wales Press 1997

Willaims. G., The Welsh Church from Conquest to Reformation, Cardiff University Press, 1976

© October 2003

Last Updated August, 2006